Tag: arendt


The year and decade in review. 2020s: orderly peace?

December 30th, 2019 — 8:49am

2019 comes to a close, and with it the 2010s. Below are a few thoughts on these periods of time.

The most significant book I’ve read in 2019 is probably Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism. The German title, literally “Elements and Origins of Totalitarian Rule” more closely reflects the contents of this monograph. Arendt explores antisemitism, imperialism and totalitarianism to form a grand analysis of totalitarian forms of government, which she considers to be genuinely new and unprecedented. Those who make it through the somewhat slow early chapters will be richly rewarded. It’s a very timely book – although written in the 1950’s, most of the ideas feel like they could be from last week. Elements of totalitarian rule are absolutely something we should worry about.

Another notable book from this year has been Edward Snowden’s Permanent Record. Aside from the obvious political dynamite, I found myself relating to a lot of the experiences he had growing up. Perhaps this is a generational story. In the late 90s, the Internet suddenly became relatively mainstream and for a short while, it was a very special place, seemingly full of utopian promise and all kinds of possibilities and exploration. For many born in the mid-80s this coincided with our teenage years.

I’ve lived in Japan throughout the 2010s, the final part of the Heisei (平成) era. In 2019 this era came to a close and we are now officially in Reiwa (令和). I can’t easily summarise the 2010s. Both my personal life and Japan seem to have undergone great change during this time, and sometimes it’s hard to separate one from the other. The Fukushima incident in 2011 was perhaps a watershed moment that Japan is still grappling with. Although the future of nuclear power has not yet been resolved, the country’s response to such a tense incident has in many ways been admirable, and the famous Japanese virtue (sometimes a double-edge sword) of stability certainly came through. The surrounding world is also changing, and Japan, though still a relatively separate culture, is becoming considerably more open and mixed as a society, perhaps out of necessity. Tourism and labour imports have both increased significantly. This raises interesting questions about what kind of society Japan might be in 10 – 20 years.

During the decade I have had diverse personal and professional experiences. I lived in Tokyo, Osaka, then Tokyo again. I was able to complete a PhD thesis. I visited many countries for the first time, and became interested in bioinformatics (mainly as a field in which to apply fundamental computer science and software engineering). I took up several new hobbies, obtained permanent residency in Japan, and was able to improve my Japanese to the point of reading novels, although I’m still not quite where I’d like to be with the language. I’ve been reading a lot of philosophy and general literature and tried to systematically develop a worldview (fragments of which sometimes appear on this blog). Not everything I tried to do worked out the way I expected, but the learning has felt very valuable, and I do feel much wiser and more capable about my approach to many things. I expect to be sincerely expressing the same sentiment in the year 2029, though.

One technical focus this year was improving my Spark (and Scala) skills and developing an algorithm for De Bruijn graph compaction (similar to what Bcalm does). I was pleased with the efficient research process I was able to achieve, probably my best ever on this kind of project. In terms of my professional path, the overall trend for me seems to be towards smaller firms and greater independence. (Although I remain with Lifematics, I will now also be available for consulting and contracting opportunities in bioinformatics as well as general software development. If you are reading this and think you would like to work with me, do get in touch.)

Thus ends a politically very strange decade, from a global perspective, and we enter the brave new world of the 2020s. Will it be a time of “orderly peace”, as the name 令和 suggests?

Comment » | Bioinformatics, Computer science, Life, Philosophy

Zuboff’s Surveillance Capitalism

June 20th, 2019 — 8:34pm

Earlier this year I read Shoshana Zuboff’s The Age of Surveillance Capitalism and was strongly affected by it. It’s always hard to judge how new works will age, but I found her narrative a poignant comment on the last few decades of the information society: a society that evolved quite differently from what many expected from the early days of the Internet. I’m willing to guess that this book will remain relevant for a long time as a snapshot of the direction that society has taken in our present time. Morozov has analysed the book in more detail than I am capable of. Here I will try to relate some of Zuboff’s points to the ideas I have developed on this blog. Unlike Fleischer (Swedish) I feel that the length of this book is justified.

I’m not categorically against capitalism (yet), but I do believe that capitalism can take problematic forms and sustain negative processes in society. Zuboff argues that what our contemporary social/behavioural data-driven internet giants represent is nothing less than a genuinely new form of capitalism that is essentially dependent on the need to observe and predict (ultimately, influence) increasingly minute forms of human behaviour. All those accidental data leaks from mobile apps, etc., are not accidental. She draws liberally on Arendt (The Origins of Totalitarianism) to make her case. There’s ample room to draw on Heidegger (enframing/gestellung), but for some reason, Zuboff chooses not to go there.

Humans wish to live in freedom (we usually agree) and perhaps do live in freedom. But what is this freedom? One definition would be that free actions do not have a calculable cause, need not be rational. In a certain way, freedom is the freedom to be arbitrary, to be irrational. This might not mean that causes do not exist, but it may mean that the right to conceal causes is important.

But from a systems point of view, entirely free, as in unconstrained, humans (in a vacuum, or a blank space devoid of meaningful relations or objects, etc) are not free. Probably, we feel most free when we are constrained to the appropriate degree: we need a floor to stand on, momentum to move with, fixed points to brace against… if the constraints are appropriate and partial in this way, then we develop a style of behaviour. In theory, we can imagine a situation where humans are so constrained that they can hardly make any choices from one moment to the next. Exploiting the gap between on one hand totally constrained and specified behaviour, and on the other hand the moderate constraints of an “appropriate” situation in the above sense, a situation with slack, we are free to play, to endow our actions with style, to perform. Perhaps this is one useful notion of freedom. Behavioural markets, then, purchase the right to choose our behavioural styles for us, to invisibly constrain us and introduce more friction. Perhaps they convert the slack into profit, perhaps they transfer it to other actors using money as a conduit. (Of course, we may think of the ability to endow one’s own actions with style in such a constraint gap as the flow of particularity.)

Why is human freedom still a scary notion to us, individually and collectively? Many consumers and techno-optimists would happily trust the voice of the algorithms rather than personally make choices. Many rush to record and give away vast quantities of data. Various forms of private and governmental surveillance combine in ways probably unimaginable to most who participate in it. Which unconscious drives are at work here? What do we hope to gain as a society? Can the internet, software, and modern electronics not be applied to nobler ends?

Comment » | Philosophy, Uncategorized

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